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在雅思阅读考试中,考鸭们常常会发现一个很有趣的现象,那就是明明定位很准确,但就是找不到答案。这种情况是多方面原因造成的,常见的就是忽视了代词和转折。那么今天 我们就用一些例题来帮助大家分析雅思考试中常考的指代逻辑。

首先,我们来看一下剑桥 6P91 的 Q17。


        As a result, factors such as 17_____ and attitudes to children have been eliminated.
        文章中出现了 and 这个词提示了我们该句有一个并列结构,可以用 attitudes 回到原文 中进行定位,再根据 factors 和 eliminate 这两个词的提示回到原文定位。  

        Now a long-term study carried out in Nicaragua has eliminated these factors by showing that teaching reading to poor adult women, who would other wise haveremained illiterate, has a direct effect on their children's health and survival.
        我们找到了 factors 和 eliminated, 但既没有找到 and 结构,也没找到 attitudes。 不少同学会习惯性继续向下寻找,进而距离答案越来越远。这里,我们忽视掉了非常重要的 一个代词these。它用来指代前面的结构,也暗示前面出现了我们需要的 factors。我们只 需向前看一句,便得到了答案。
        Most literate women learnt to read in primary school, and the fact that a womanhas had an education may simply indicate her family's wealth or that it values itschildren more highly.
        我们会发现两个并列结构 and 和 or, 而题目中 and 后跟的‘attitudes to children ’ 与这句话中‘it values its children more highly ’做了同义转述,所以答案应为 or 前方 的 family’s wealth,选项 J 即为答案。这里 attitude 的同义转述无形中增加了难度,即使 大家先于定位句看到这句话也不容易得到答案。但是,有了 these 的提示,并谨记‘代词前 指’这一原则,相信答案就不难找。
        同样的案例也出现在了剑桥 8 的 P29。
        Positive results could be produced by factors such as 34 ………or 35 ………

        原文: Just because chance had been ruled out as an explanation did not prove telepathymust exist; there were many other ways of getting positive results. These ranged from 'sensory leakage' - where clues about the pictures accidentally reach the receiver - to outright fraud. In response, the researchers issued a review of all the ganzfeld studies done up to1985 to show that 80 per cent had found statistically significant evidence. However, they also agreed that there were still too many problems in the experiments which could lead to positiveresults, and they drew up a list demanding new standards for future research.
        在这里,these 指的是 positive results,range from 和题目中的 such as 形成了 同义替换关系,因此,答案为 sensory leakage 和 outright fraud。
        实际上,在代词家族中 this、that、they、those 等都有类似用法,有心的考鸭可以 在平时的学习中做个有心人,留意观察,并谨记‘代词前指’的原则,相信这些起到指代作用 的代词会在大家夺取雅思阅读高分的路上助大家一臂之力。

本文由沈阳雅思培训通途国际英语的Cathy老师为同学们总结的雅思阅读真题,希望对托福备考的小伙伴有所帮助,更多精彩内容请访问通途国际英语雅思频道。
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