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最近美国总统特朗普打高尔夫求的一则新闻备受舆论关注,当然不仅仅因为他是总统,而是因为他在大选时曾经讽刺奥巴马打高尔夫“不务正业”,还信誓旦旦地说自己如果当了总统,不会像奥巴马一样把很多时间花在高尔夫上。其实,上台后的特朗普打高尔夫球已经不下16次了。这可是一个“天大的” 政治讽刺,特朗普的虚伪暴露无遗。
 
在议论文写作中,讽刺(irony这一写作手法也会经常被用来批评、攻击、揭露和反驳对方的观点。那么讽刺在议论文中具体是如何发挥它的说服作用的,我们今天就一起来看看吧~
 
 

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什么是讽刺(irony

expression of one ‘s meaning by saying the direct opposite of one’s thoughts in order to be emphatic, amusing, sarcastic, etc.
 
简单地说,讽刺就是正话反说,以达到强调,娱乐和挖苦的目的。比如说,英国湖畔派诗人柯勒律治的 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner《古舟子咏》中有这样一句诗:
“Water, water, everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.”
上面的诗句中,通过讽刺形象地说明了搁浅小舟的尴尬情形,即虽然到处都是水,但是没有一滴可以饮用的水。
 

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讽刺常见的修辞效果是什么?

1)增强感染力
…make a more powerful impression on the reader…
 
2)增强阅读兴趣
…to develop readers’ interest
 
3)增强个人联结
…bring the topic closer to the life.
 
4)反驳对手观点
 …to rebut… 
 
常用句型如下:
What the author does?
With a sharp sarcasm when mentioning …
The author casts an irony, because he/she mocks…and inferred that …
Through this humorous satire/irony …
 
Why he or she does it?
…attempts to add power to his/her argument…
…to try to show the audience that …
…to support his argument that…
 
What effect this is likely to have on readers?
…striking an emotional chord with his/her audience…
…reminds his/her reader of the …
…piques the audience …
 

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如何用3W原则对irony展开深度分析?

如何使用3W原则来分析一篇议论文中的irony呢,我们一起看个例子吧~
Notwithstanding the aforementioned reasons why plastic bags are not, in fact, evil incarnate, environmentalists have every right to try to convince people to adopt certain beliefs or lifestyles, but they do not have the right to use government force to compel people to live the way they think best. In a free society, we are able to live our lives as we please, so long as we do no infringe upon the rights of others. That includes the right to make such fundamental decisions as “Paper or plastic?” ( 原文选自:Bag Ban Bad for Freedom and Environment.)
 

 

 
He reminds his readers that they are members of a free society, which of course includes the right to choose “Paper or plastic?” The author’s use of sarcasm enables him to take strategic jabs at his opponents while winning the audience over to his side with humor. 
 

原文如何体现3W原则

首先范文引用了原文的细节(He reminds his readers that they are members of…),即在一个自由的社会里面,如果连在选择纸袋和塑料袋上都没有权利的话,真是一个可笑的讽刺。
紧接着,范文直接说明原文作者在此处使用了讽刺的手法,并分析了这一手法的修辞目的(…enables him to take strategic jabs at…) 即这一讽刺手法有力地抨击了反方观点,同时又能以一种幽默的方式赢得了观众的支持。
 
本文由沈阳SAT培训通途国际英语的Lorraine老师为小伙伴们总结的,希望对SAT备考的小伙伴有所帮助,更多精彩内容请访问通途国际英语SAT频道。
 
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