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如果你想说服别人,最好的办法不是将自己的观点强加于他人,也不是说一大堆道理,而是给他来一个鲜活的例子。
 
说到举例子,在议论文中,它可是百试不爽。眼见为实,当读者看到活生生的例子摆在眼前时,自然也就很容易被作者例子所说服了。
 
那么,我们一起来看看如何运用3W原则分析“举例子”的说服效果!
 
 
-1-
What the author does?
写了什么
●  All of these examples …
 
●  The author goes on discuss the context of …by providing examples of …
 
●  He/she hones in on examples, like …
 
●  Throwing specific/concrete examples at us,“…”
 
●  …by introducing a negative example of…
 
●  The author opens by listing a number of representative / detailed / real life / general / related / clear / relevant examples of …
 
-2-
Why he or she does it?
什么目的
●  In an attempt to point out the…
 
●  …help to justify his/her main argument that…
 
●  …in order to grab the reader’s attention and connect his/her claims to their “day-to-day experiences.”
 
●  To exemplify …,
 
-3-
What effect this is likely to have on readers
什么效果
●  …lead up to a dramatic rhetorical crescendo…
 
●  This also serves as a way to persuade leaders of the increasing importance of the need for…
 
●  By doing so, the author connects his/her view with the minds of audience.
 
●  …thus preparing the reader to follow the author’s logic.
 
 
举例子的主要修辞目的和效果包括:
 
通过举例说明来论证自己的观点
(justify)

借用鲜活的例子博人眼球,从而说服读者
(grab the reader’s attention)

增强文章气势
(dramatic rhetorical crescendo)

让读者能够轻松跟上作者的逻辑思路
(follow the author’s logic)
 
 
一起来看个栗子吧
 
  
 
原文
It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights... Even Paris, the famed “city of light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m... But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing.
 (Source: Let There Be Dark)
 
分析
What the author does?
 
Bogard uses a specific example, Paris, “the city of light,” to finalize his claim. Bogard informs his readers that even the “City of Light” turns off its monumental lighting after 1 a.m., and that it requires office buildings to shut down the lights after 2 a.m. The reason is very simple: it makes economical sense.
 
Why he or she does it?
 
By using the example of Paris, a world class tourism city known for beautiful lights, and how it is making changes to reduce light usage, Bogard makes a clear statement that it is economically impractical to be overly lit up. Turning off the excessive lights and returning to darkness makes economical sense.
 
What effect this is likely to have on readers
 
This strategy helps the readers to see a practical reason of preserving the natural darkness.
 
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