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托福备考:托福写作热门词汇和句型汇总

important  significant   magnificent

沈阳托福培训学校通途小编为你整理托福写作词汇具体应用到句子中:

1. WTO is planning an important conference about commercial regulations。

2. It is a significant contribution to the society。

3. We have visited the magnificent Forbidden city。

这几个词大家都很熟悉,都有“重要,华丽”的意思。可是作为同级比较的形容词,它们之间的关系则是递进式的,其强调的重要或者华丽的程度也在逐渐提升。如果你按照这样的顺序来进行记忆,不但可以记牢这几个单词,而且可以得到如何应用的真谛。所以所谓的高级词汇的应用,要从基础开始,打好基础之后再进行积累,切忌操之过急。再来看看下边这个例子:

Humility humiliate humiliated humiliating

这几个词汇都是由humility衍生出来的,但是意思大不相同,humility是我们的传统美德,叫做“谦卑”,和pride正好是反义词;而humiliate却是“使人蒙尘”的意思,humiliate和humiliating 一般口语使用偏多,指的是“感觉很丢脸,没有面子”。例如:I feel humiliated 或者 it is humiliating. 有时候,与其花费大量时间去记忆新单词和词组,都不如在已经掌握的单词中进行联想性的扩展来的有效和实惠。其实道理很简单,说一个东西好,很好,到非常好,相当好,甚至好到不能再好,这是一个纵向比较的记忆方法,按照级别的不同进行选择性的记忆和使用。

我们再看看下边这个例子:

So amazing are these crewmembers that they have successfully accomplished space walk,what a briliant mission!

这句话是某英文网站对神舟七号的评价,这个属于句子的倒装,但是强调的内容是amazing。这个词意思很广泛,而且同义词也有很多,例如incredible, wonderful, 甚至unbelievable,这里用amazing是表示难以置信的好,类似incredible,是对太空行走这次任务完成的积极评价,这就是高级词汇的同等记忆了,这几个词都有“美妙,奇妙,难以置信”之类的意思,记忆的方法属于横向比较,也就是说,都是表示好到不能再好之类的意思,但是好的方向不同,所以单词的选择会有区别。

我们来看看句子吧。如果说单词是句子的灵魂,那句子就是文章的基石,而句型则是不同品质的基石,可以让整篇文章充满多样的色彩,读起来让人很有兴趣。虽然句型的变化很多,可是针对TOEFL文章的特点,一篇接近300字的议论文,IBT在注重文章的完整性和一致性的同时,也需要文章有精彩的内容。可是文章篇幅有限,我们仅仅需要熟练地应用几个不同的句型,就一定会给评分人留下很深刻的印象了。

句子中的的修辞

我们看看下边的几个例句:

1. Knowledge will never lie。

知之为知之,不知为不知,是智也。

这个句子使用了拟人的修辞手法,赋予了knowledge生命,形象化了知识的严谨性,同时也避免了直接翻译的繁琐冗长。

2. That information comes very impressively to everyone in the job market。

那一信息使所有正在找工作的人为之一震。

这个句子也间接使用了拟人的手法,人性化了Information这个词,come可以把人们接受信息的过程表达的更生动。

3. Confidence never fails to play a significant role in your entire life。

自信在你一生中扮演极其重要的角色

这个句子中never和fail表示双重否定,用以加强肯定的成分。

这几种句子中的修辞手法都可以使句子的意思表达起来更生动,让人读起来容易接受,同时也避免了直接翻译的很多缺点。

强调句的应用和举例说明

孔子《论语》中的这个经典语句可谓家喻户晓,一句“有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎”道出了中华民族作为礼仪之邦的特点。在托福中,这句话可以应用在关于friendship的文章,这句话直译过来说的是:有朋友从很远的地方来看你难道不是一件很开心的事情吗?通过中文理解,我们知道这句话所强调的部分是:一件很开心的事情。“开心”有很多词汇可以选择,常用的有happy和glad,高级一点的有enjoyable和pleasant,再高级一点的还有incredible和delightful。应用到实际写作中,可以使用it is 做一个强调句来凸显这句话的特点,例如:

It’s delightful to have friends from distant lands。

在这个句子中,除了deightful以外,其他句子成分都很平常,每个人都会写,所以即使是评卷人看到这个句子也不会觉得稀奇,那么作为强调句,恰好是delightful这个词,代表了一种发自心底的喜悦和开心,让读过这个句子的人都有眼前一亮的感觉,这也就达到了强调句的作用。然而happy和glad也都有快乐之意,但是和delightful相比就显得不够级别了,明显高兴的程度不一样,delightful更能显示一种喜悦带来的兴奋,迎接千里迢迢来访的朋友这样的表达最恰当不过了。可以起到强调作用的句型结构有很多,我们能够用到的同位语从句和倒装句都有这样的作用,例如:

It is an undeniable fact that human activities harm the Earth。

这句话中that后边引导的就是要强调的内容,即an undeniable fact. 为了突出harm the Earth是一个不可否认的事实,做成这样一个句子。

Only through effective measures can the government resolve the dispute。

这句话强调的就是only后边的effective measures,而且翻译过来是只有同过有效的措施,强调的唯一性,无二法门。

为什么要倒装

从字面上解释,倒装句子的特点就是把句子倒过来说,这样的解释过于直白但却很实际。根据英语句型结构特点,因为要强调才会选择去倒装。我们看看下边的两个例子:

1. So severe is this problem that we have no alternative but to take some feasible measures to deal with it。

2. So amazing are these crewmembers that they have successfully accomplished space walk。

句子中划线的部分就是倒装结构的重点强调所在,关于倒装句的作用,前边已然讲过,这里就不多说了。在TOEFL的具体应用中,我们需要在写作实践里进行检验。

Only through education can we rise in the world。

Only by receiving education can we rise in the world。

托福写作从句什么时候使用

在托福写作中,从句句型还是应用比较广泛的,常用的主语、宾语从句,定语从句,还有我们讲过的同位语从句。我见过的托福写作范文中,包括CBT和IBT的两类作文,段落中从句出现的频率都是很高的,尤其是第一段introduction中,一般做背景介绍的时候都会使用宾语从句,例如:some people claim that… 在文章的主体部分中,为了体现句式的变化,各种从句交替应用就显得很重要;即使在iBT导入了first draft的概念之后,对文章的内容要求也没有改变要求,需要体现完整性和统一性。有一点值得注意,从句虽好,但不宜过多重复,这就好像美酒虽好,但不要贪杯的道理一样。好钢用在刀刃上,从句的优点是简单句不能比拟的,但只有简单句结合从句,才能体现句子的多变性;也只有全部的句子都为主题句服务,文章的整体性才会更好的体现。以下是议论文写作中比较好的一些从句例子:

1. Many experts claim that people should positively participate in garbage recycle。

宾语从句,一般出现在首段背景介绍部分。

2. Horror movies, in which there might be bleeding and terrifying scenes, are not recommended for children。

定语从句,一般在主体部分中比较常见,用以解释说明,达到简化句子的目的。

3. As long as you are a student, you should always behave yourself。
(MA) Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation(buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

Governments should definitely spend more money on improving all forms of public transportation. The widespread use of private cars has contributed to some serious problems in society, including depletion of natural resources, increased pollution and the loss of a sense of a sense of community. By encouraging the use of public transportation, governments can do a lot to counteract these problems.

Cars depend on oil and gasoline, which are nonrenewable resources. Once we have used them up, they are gone forever. Every time a person gets into a private car to go to work, to the store, or anywhere, gasoline is used up just to take one person to one place. The more people drive their cars, the more resources are used up. When people use public transportation, on the other hand, less oil and gasoline are used up per person.

Cars cause pollution. Every time a person drive his car somewhere, more pollution is put into the air. In many big cities, the high amount of air pollution causes health problems for the residents. Public transportation means fewer cars on the road, and that means less pollution.

Cars tend to isolate people from each other. When a person use a private car, he is alone or only with people that he already knows. He doesn’t have the opportunity to see other people or talk to them or feel that he is part of a larger community. When he uses public transportation, however, he is surrounded by neighbors and other fellow city residents. He has a chance to be with people he might not otherwise see, and maybe even to get to know them a little.

Environment problems and increased isolation are some of the most serious problems of modern society. Encouraging the use of public transportation is one way government can work against these problems and start creating a better world.
(AD) It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.

I have to disagree that it is better for children to grow up in the countryside. In the countryside, children have limited opportunities to see and learn about things. In the city, on the other hand, they are exposed to many different things. They see all kinds of different people every day. They have opportunities to attend many cultural events. They see people working in different kinds of jobs and therefore can make better choices for their own future. Growing up in the city is definitely better.

All different kinds of people live in the city, while in a small town in the countryside people are often all the same. City people come from other parts of the country or even from other countries. They are of different races and religions. When children grow up in this situation, they have the opportunity to learn about and understand different kinds of people. This is an important part of their education.

In the city, there are many opportunities to attend cultural events, whereas such opportunities are usually limited in the countryside. In the city there are movies and theaters, museums, zoos, and concerts. In the city children can attend cultural events every weekend, or even more often. This is also an important part of their education.

People in the city work in different kinds of jobs, while in the countryside there often isn’t a variety of job opportunities. People in the city work at all different types and levels of professions, as well as in factories, in service jobs, and more. Children growing up in the city learn that there is a wide variety of jobs they can choose from when they grow up. They have a greater possibility of choosing a career that they will enjoy and do well in. This is perhaps the most important part of their education.

People usually move to the city because there are more opportunities there. Children who grow up in the city have these opportunities from the time they are small. They city is definitely a better place for children to grow up.
(MA) In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

People are living to be much older these days for a number of reasons. The main reasons are greater access to health care, improved health care, and better nutrition.

Basic health care is available to more people now. when someone is seriously ill, he or she can go to a public hospital. There are also more clinics and doctors than there used to be. Years ago, health care wasn’t available to everyone. Some people didn’t live near a doctor or hospital and other couldn’t pay for the care they needed.

People also live longer because the quality of health care has improved. Doctors now know more about diseases and cures. Years ago, people died young because of simple things such as an infection or a virus. Now we have antibiotics and other medicines to help cure infections.

The quality of nutrition has improved also. We eat more healthfully than we used to. We know that eating low-fat food can prevent heart disease, and we know that eating fruits and vegetables can prevent cancer.

Improved health care and healthy eating habits allow us to live longer. Now we need to make sure that everyone in the world has these benefits.

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