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2016年6月18日托福写作真题预测:综合写作部分

Integrated Essay "Effective Discipline"

Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan, write, and revise your response to a reading passage and a lecture on the same topic. First, read the passage and take notes. Then, listen to the lecture and take notes. Finally, write your response to the writing question. Typically, a good response will require that you write 150-225 words.

Reading Passage(3minutes)

According to the most recent research on parenting, caretakers tend to use three strategies for disciplining children. Power includes the use of physical punishment such as a spanking or the threat of physical punishment, but parents can also demonstrate power by taking away a privilege such as using the car, attending a sporting event, or, in the case of a very young child, playing with a favorite toy. In spite of the fact that power strategies, especially severe physical punishment, can cause children to fear or even hate parents, it’s surprising that power remains the strategy used most often in disciplining children. It’s also worth noting that children who are harshly disciplined in this way tend to be hostile, defiant, and aggressive socially.

Second in popularity after power is the withholding of affection. This can take the form of refusal to communicate with a child, threatening to abandon or reject the child, or otherwise treating children as though they were unworthy of love. Interesting enough, children disciplined in this way appear on the surface to be very self-disciplined, even model children who are seldom in trouble, but underneath, these same children are generally very nervous, insecure, and dependent on others to approve of and guide their eva luation of behavior.

Finally, management techniques are employed for discipline. These begin with a set of rules that are clearly expressed at an age-appropriate level. To enforce the rules, parents use a combination of praise and approval with explanation and reasoning, always referring back to the rules.

But regardless of the strategy, the behavior that has precipitated punishment should be clearly understood, and the consequences should be consistent. Key to any kind of discipline is a pattern of consistency so that children understand the relationship between the rules, their behavior, and the consequences.

Now listen to a lecture on the same topic as the passage that you have just read.

Question: Referring to the main points in the lecture, summarize the professor’s views on effective discipline and contrast them with the options that parents tend to use, as outlined in the reading passage.

题目讲解:

题干讲解:

判断听力材料是支持还是反驳阅读材料中观点,针对每个观点分别记下听力中给出的理由和例子写出作文。第一段可以总结阅读材料中的观点,第二段相应总结听力中给出的反驳理由和例子 或 听力中补充说明的例子。

观点提示:

1、 发言者提倡关注儿童的自信而不是约束和惩罚,驳斥阅读部分内容。

2、 儿童的感情经历若包括缺乏沟通,甚至被抛弃的威胁,会危害到成长。

套路讲解:

The lecture is mainly discussing____ _____and ______by_____, challenging what are stated in the reading passage that ______,____and ____.提出阅读与听力部分各自主题

First of all, the speaker thinks that ____.In contrast,the reading passage believes that ____,so the lecture totally disagree with the view made in reading.

Second, the speaker discuss____, contradicting what is stated in the reading that____.

Finally, the speaker raises the issue that ____.This point disagrees that____demostrated in reading. 指出听力部分支持/反驳阅读部分,以及具体的理由和例子。

So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has tatally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.

锦囊妙词:

Worthwhile——值得做的。

Reflect——反应,思考。

Definition——定义,本质。

参考范文:

The professor advocates the reinforcement of correct behavior rather than the punishment of incorrect behavior. He refers to a study by Coopersmith in which children who experienced “withholding of affection” also showed signs of low self-esteem, whereas children who were disciplined using management strategies displayed high self-esteem. According to the lecture, most psychologists do not recommend physical consequences for children younger than two years old, and some oppose physical punishment for older children as well. When punishment is required, a consistent set of consequences for children who disregard the limits appears to engender positive self-esteem along with maturity.

Unfortunately, the three most common strategies that parents and caretakers use are, in order of frequency, power strategies, which include physical punishment; the withdrawal of affection; and management strategies. Children who are disciplined with harsh power strategies tend to become aggressive and rebellious. In contrast, children who experience the withholding of affection, including lack of communication or even threats of abandonment, can develop feelings of insecurity and dependence on others for approval in spite of model behavior while they are growing up.

In all forms of discipline, the relationship between the behavior and the disciplinary action should be clear and the consequences consistent, but, when making a choice for children, it may be worthwhile to reflect on the definition of discipline, which means “to teach” versus punishment, which means “to harm.”

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Tags:托福 托福综合写作 责任编辑:通途国际英语
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